Effect of Deletion of cIAP2 on Intestinal Microcirculation in Mouse Endotoxemia and Polybacterial Sepsis

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Deletion of the cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (cIAP2) is capable of rendering lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages highly susceptible to apoptotic triggers, thereby quickly eliminating the resident macrophage population soon after the initiation of a systemic inflammatory response. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of cIAP2 deletion on leukocyte recruitment and capillary perfusion in experimental endotoxemia and polybacterial sepsis using intravital microscopy of the intestinal microcirculation, which is crucial in the pathogenesis of septic multiple organ failure. We studied six groups of animals: wild-type (WT) control mice, cIAP2 knockout mice, endotoxemic WT mice (5 mg/kg LPS), endotoxemic cIAP2 knockouts (5 or 50 mg/kg LPS, respectively), and WT as well as knockout mice with polybacterial sepsis (colon ascendens stent peritonitis [CASP]). Intravital microscopy of the intestinal microcirculation was performed after 1 h of endotoxemia or 12 h of CASP-induced sepsis, respectively. Intestinal microvascular blood flow was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry. After 1 h of endotoxemia (5 mg/kg LPS), we observed a significant increase of leukocyte adhesion in intestinal submucosal venules of WT mice in comparison with control animals. The cIAP2 knockout mice showed a significant reduction in leukocyte recruitment within the intestinal submucosal microvasculature after 5 or 50 mg/kg LPS challenge, respectively. Lipopolysaccharide-induced decrease in intestinal microvascular blood flow was not affected by cIAP2 inhibition. In CASP-induced sepsis, cIAP2 deletion had no effect on intestinal leukocyte recruitment. Deletion of cIAP2 resulted in reduced microvascular leukocyte recruitment within the intestinal microcirculation in endotoxemia but not in polybacterial sepsis.

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