Tranexamic Acid, Fibrinogen Concentrate, and Prothrombin Complex Concentrate: Data to Support Prehospital Use?

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Trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) occurs early after severe injury. TIC is associated with a substantial increase in bleeding rate, transfusion requirements, and a 4-fold higher mortality. Rapid surgical control of blood loss and early aggressive hemostatic therapy are essential steps in improving survival. Since the publication of the CRASH-2 study, early administration of tranexamic acid is considered as an integral step in trauma resuscitation protocols of severely injured patients in many trauma centers. However, the advantage of en route administration of tranexamic acid is not proven in prospective studies. Fibrinogen depletes early after severe trauma; therefore, it seems to be reasonable to maintain plasma fibrinogen as early as possible. The effect of prehospital fibrinogen concentrate administration on outcome in major trauma patients is the subject of an ongoing prospective investigation. The use of prothrombin complex concentrate is potentially helpful in patients anticoagulated with vitamin K antagonists who experience substantial trauma or traumatic brain injury. Beyond emergency reversal of vitamin K antagonists, safety data on prothrombin complex concentrate use in trauma are lacking.

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