Investigation of Noninvasive Muscle pH and Oxygen Saturation During Uncontrolled Hemorrhage and Resuscitation in Swine

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Abstract

This study evaluated noninvasively determined muscle pH (pHm) and muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) in a swine shock model that used uncontrolled hemorrhage and restricted volume resuscitation. Anesthetized 40-kg female swine underwent hemorrhage until 24 mL/kg of blood was removed (n = 26), followed by transection of the spleen, causing uncontrolled hemorrhage throughout the remainder of the protocol. After 15 min, 15 mL/kg of resuscitation fluid (Hextend, fresh-frozen plasma or platelets) was given for 30 min. Arterial and venous blood gases were measured at baseline, shock, end of resuscitation, and end of the study (death or 5 h), along with lactate and base excess. In addition, seven animals underwent a sham procedure. Spectra were collected continuously from the posterior thigh using a prototype CareGuide 1100 Oximeter, and pHm and SmO2 were calculated from the spectra. A two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures followed by Tukey post hoc comparisons was used to compare experimental factors. It was shown that, for both pH and SO2, venous and muscle values were similar to each other at the end of the resuscitation period and at the end of the study for both surviving and nonsurviving animals. pH and SO2, venous and muscle, significantly declined as a result of bleeding, but lactate and base excess did not show significant changes during this period. Noninvasive pHm and SmO2 tracked the adequacy of resuscitation in real time, indicating at the time all of the fluid was delivered, which animals would live and which would die. The results of this swine study indicate that further evaluation on trauma patients is warranted.

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