Oxygen Mitigates the Inflammatory Response in a Model of Hemorrhage and Zymosan-Induced Inflammation

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Sequential insults (hits) may change the inflammatory reaction that develops in response to separate single hits (e.g., injury, infection); however, their effects on the long-term clinical outcome are still only partially elucidated. Double-hit models are typically severe and fatal. We characterized in C57BL/6 mice a moderate double-hit model of hemorrhage (35%–40% of total blood volume) and resuscitation, followed by peritoneal injection of zymosan A that induced local and systemic inflammation with 58% mortality. This model allowed exploration of the inflammatory response over time in the surviving mice. We show that after 2 days, mice subjected to the double-hit model had elevated proinflammatory systemic and local peritoneal cytokine response (interleukin [IL]-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6) and moderately elevated anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, transforming growth factor-β), compared with the single-hit and sham mice. However, this dynamically changed, and by day 7, proinflammatory cytokines were reduced, and anti-inflammatory cytokines were markedly (P < 0.05) elevated in the double-hit group. Mice in the double-hit group that inhaled 100% oxygen intermittently for 6 h every day exhibited markedly reduced serum proinflammatory cytokines as early as day 2 (P < 0.05), inhibited macrophage infiltration into the peritoneum (by 13-fold; P < 0.05), and substantially increased survival rates of 85% (P = 0.00144). Oxygen mitigates the inflammatory response and exerts a beneficial effect on survival in a double-hit model of hemorrhage and zymosan-induced inflammation.

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