Prognostic Value of B-Type Natriuretic Peptide, Leukocytosis, and Hyperglycemia in Children with Severe Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

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Our goal is to determine the prognostic value of serum N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), leukocytosis, and hyperglycemia in patients with severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD).


This is a prospective cohort study conducted from March 2011 through October 2012 at Hunan Children's Hospital.


Hunan Children's Hospital, a large children's teaching hospital with 1,500-beds located in the Changsha region of Hunan Province in China.


295 children who were presented with clinical manifestation of severe HFMD, and required hospitalization.


Standard supportive treatment for HFMD as recommended by the national guidelines.


Admission blood samples were analyzed for NT-proBNP, leukocyte count, and serum glucose. Independent prognostic value of NT-proBNP for predicting mortality was evaluated using the Cox proportional hazard model adjusting for various covariates.

Main Results:

Area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) analysis suggested that a serum concentration of NT-proBNP concentration more than 1,500 pg/mL is an optimal cutoff point. Twenty-four patients (8.1%) had an NT-proBNP more than 1,500 pg/mL, and a 3-day mortality of 46% (11/24). Adjusted for tachycardia, tachypnea, hypertension, hyperglycemia, leukocytosis, and conscious disturbance on presentation, elevated NT-proBNP was associated with a 22.5-fold (95% confidence interval, 3.56–142.66) increased risk of 3-day mortality. We have further improved the specificity and AUROC values by the HFMD laboratory score, which combines NT-proBNP, leukocytosis, and hyperglycemia.


Routine admission surveillance for NT-proBNP is useful for identifying patients with HFMD at risk for mortality. Further studies are needed to determine whether early intervention in patients with highly elevated NT-proBNP can improve outcome.

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