Neutrophilic inflammation is a mediator of morbidity and mortality in response to hemorrhagic shock. Although injury-induced neutrophil margination has long been observed, the nature of neutrophils’ role in the “second hit” paradigm remains to be fully elucidated. We sought to extensively characterize neutrophil phenotype and functionality in response to severe hemorrhage in non-human primates (NHPs).Methods:
NHPs (n = 8) were subjected to severe hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. Blood was obtained at baseline (T = 0 min), end of shock (T = 60 min), end of resuscitation (T = 180 min), T = 360 min, and 24 h (T = 1440 min). Neutrophils were quantified by complete blood count and flow cytometry. IL-8 and IL-10 production was determined by intracellular flow cytometry. Oxidation of dihydrorhodamine-123 (DHR-123) was used to determine neutrophil oxidative bursts (untreated), priming (+fMLP), and burst capacity (+PMA/ionomycin) via microplate reader ex vivo. Data are reported as mean ± SEM; statistical significance was measured using repeated measures ANOVA with Bonferroni adjustment. P < 0.05 is considered significant.Results:
CD45+CD11b+CD16+ neutrophils doubled postinjury (P < 0.0001); this was due to activated IL-8+/IL-10+ neutrophils that increased in frequency in relation to resting IL-8loIL-10neg cells. At 24 h, the proportions of activated to resting neutrophils returned to baseline levels. Resuscitative measures initially decreased neutrophil oxidative output; however, oxidative bursts, priming, and burst capacity were significantly increased at 24 h (P < 0.0025, 0.0124, and 0.0118, respectively).Conclusion:
These results demonstrate an acute expansion and phenotypic activation of circulating neutrophils postinjury followed by a return to homeostatic proportions within 24 h; paradoxically, phenotypically “resting” neutrophils at 24 h have significantly higher oxidative potential, predisposing for exaggerated inflammatory responses. These data are consistent with clinical literature and provide important functional insight into neutrophil-mediated shock pathology.