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To compare the efficacy of hypotensive resuscitation with hypertonic saline dextran 70 (HSD) and lactated Ringer (LR) solutions in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock at a simulated altitude of 4,000 m.Anesthetized rats were bled to maintain their mean arterial pressure (MAP) at 45 mm Hg for 1 h. The distal quarter of the tail was then amputated to allow free blood loss; rats were simultaneously resuscitated with 4 mL kg−1 HSD (HSD group, n = 10) or 4 mL kg−1 LR (LR group, n = 10), followed by hypotensive resuscitation with LR to maintain MAP at 55 to 60 mm Hg for 1 h. A control group received no resuscitation (n = 10). Afterward, the cut end of the tail was ligated. The MAP, acid–base balance, blood loss, volume of fluid infused, and survival were recorded.Compared with controls, HSD resuscitation improved MAP (without increasing uncontrolled blood loss), increased arterial pH and oxygen saturation (SaO2), decreased arterial lactate concentration at the end of resuscitation, and resulted in higher survival rate (P < 0.05). Hypotensive resuscitation with LR also maintained higher MAP, pH, and SaO2 than the control group, but was associated with increased blood loss and inferior survival (P > 0.05).For hemorrhagic shock at simulated high altitude, resuscitation of rats with a bolus of HSD was associated with reduced blood loss and serum lactate concentration, and superior SaO2, hemoglobin concentration and survival rate, compared with LR solution.