Protection Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Immunosuppression by IgG and IgM

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Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is commonly used in murine sepsis models, which are largely associated with immunosuppression and collapse of the immune system. After adapting the LPS treatment to the needs of locally bred BALB/c mice, the present study explored the potential role of IgG and IgM in reversing LPS endotoxemia. The established protocol consisted of five daily intraperitoneal injections of 0.2 μg/g LPS, which was tolerable by half of the manipulated animals. Such a protocol allowed longer survival, necessary in the prospect of therapeutic treatment application. This treatment significantly decreased CD4+, CD8+, CD3z+, and CD19+ cells, while increasing myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs; CD11b+Gr1+), CD25+ and Foxp3+ cells. These results were accompanied by increased arginase-1 activity in spleen cell lysates and production of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-18, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the serum. The applied LPS protocol did not alter serum procalcitonin levels. MDSCs isolated from the spleen of LPS-treated animals (LPS-MDSCs) decreased proliferation of naive T cells in coculture experiments. The application of IgG and IgM to the naive T cell/LPS-MDSCs cocultures significantly decreased CD25+, Foxp3+, and CD3z+ cells, indicating an anti-suppressive effect of immunoglobulins. The in vivo application of IgG and IgM significantly decreased the percent of CD11b+Gr1+, CD25+, Foxp3+ cells, and arginase-1 activity in the spleen of LPS-treated animals, while decreasing IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP levels in the serum, allowing survival to all animals tested. In conclusion, these results reveal a novel mode of action of IgG/IgM in LPS endotoxemia, strengthening thus the use of immunoglobulin treatment is septic patients.

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