Procalcitonin and MR-Proadrenomedullin Combination with SOFA and qSOFA Scores for Sepsis Diagnosis and Prognosis: A Diagnostic Algorithm

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The third Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3) defined sepsis as an organ dysfunction consequent to infection. A Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score at least 2 identifies sepsis. In this study, procalcitonin (PCT) and midregional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) were evaluated along with SOFA and quick SOFA (qSOFA) scores in patients with sepsis or septic shock.


A total of 109 septic patients and 50 patients with noninfectious disease admitted at the Department of Internal Medicine and General Surgery of the University Hospital Campus Bio-Medico of Rome were enrolled. PCT and MR-proADM were measured with immunoluminometric assays (Brahms, Hennigsdorf, Germany). Data were analyzed with receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, likelihood ratios, and Mann–Whitney U test using MedCalc package.


At ROC curve analysis, PCT showed the highest area under the curve and positive likelihood ratio values of 27.42 in sepsis and 43.62 in septic shock. MR-proADM and SOFA score showed a comparable performance. In septic shock, lactate showed the most accurate diagnostic ability. In sepsis, the best combination was PCT with MR-proADM with a posttest probability of 0.988. Based upon these results, an algorithm for sepsis and septic shock diagnosis has been developed. MR-proADM, SOFA, and qSOFA scores significantly discriminated survivors from nonsurvivors.


PCT and MR-proADM test combination represent a good tool in sepsis diagnosis and prognosis suggesting their inclusion in the diagnostic algorithm besides SOFA and qSOFA scores. Furthermore, MR-proADM as marker of organ dysfunction, with a turn around time of about 30 min, has the advantage to be more objective and rapid than SOFA score.

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