Cardiogenic Shock Due to End-Stage Heart Failure and Acute Myocardial Infarction: Characteristics and Outcome of Temporary Mechanical Circulatory Support

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Background:Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) is increasingly used in cardiogenic shock, but outcomes may differ between patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or end-stage heart failure (ESHF). This study aimed to describe the characteristics of patients with cardiogenic shock due to AMI and ESHF.Methods:Single-center study of consecutive patients with cardiogenic shock due to AMI (n = 26) and ESHF (n = 42) who underwent MCS (extracorporeal life support, Impella or temporary ventricular assist devices). Arterial and venous O2 content and CO2 tension (PCO2), O2-hemoglobin affinity (P50) were measured. Veno-arterial difference in PCO2/arterio-venous difference in O2 content ratio was derived. Acid–base balance was characterized by the Gilfix method. MCS-related complications that required intervention or surgery were collected.Results:Patients with ESHF had lower ejection fraction, higher right and left-sided filling pressures, pulmonary artery pressure and vascular resistance, lower oxygen delivery (DO2) compared with AMI, which was not fully compensated by the increased hemoglobin P50. As a result, patients with ESHF had higher veno-arterial difference in PCO2 relative to arterio-venous difference in O2 content. Despite greater anerobic metabolism, patients with ESHF had less severe metabolic acidosis and base deficit compared with AMI, predominantly due to differences in strong ions.Conclusion:The cardiogenic shock phenotype in ESHF was distinct from AMI, characterized by higher filling and pulmonary artery pressures, lower DO2, greater anaerobic metabolism but less severe metabolic acidosis.

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