Etiology, Prevention, and Management of Infectious Complications of Dermal Fillers

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The demand for aesthetic augmentation with soft tissue fillers has greatly increased in recent years and has led to an expansion in the number of products available. Unfortunately, an increase in adverse events has followed. These can be categorized into early, late, and delayed. Early infectious complications generally present as a localized skin infection, cellulitis, or abscess. Fillers can also serve as a focus for chronic infection, which is associated with the development of foreign body granulomas, a late complication. Bacterial colonization and indolent infections of the filler site can lead to biofilms that are extremely difficult to treat. Therefore, it is important to focus on prevention through eliciting a thorough patient history including an injection history, practicing sterile technique, and minimizing tissue trauma. Looking forward, much can be done to curtail complication rates. Early teaching and training, a central recording registry for complications, and a standardized filler passport for patients are suggested.

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