Scalp and Forehead Reconstruction

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Abstract

Reconstructing the scalp and forehead is a challenging endeavor frequently undertaken by facial plastic and reconstructive surgeons. There are many anatomical factors to be considered in this area, including multiple neurovascular structure present that should be identified and preserved. Hair morphology and physiology should be considered, and trichophytic techniques should be incorporated into incision planning and closure. The reconstructive ladder must be used when considering options in reconstructing scalps and forehead defects. This article reviews reconstructive options including secondary intention, primary closure, skin grafting, allografts, tissue expanders, and local, regional, and free tissue transfers, among others in the surgical management of forehead and scalp defects. The reconstructive surgeon should be familiar with these techniques and be able to use them when indicated, based on the size, shape, and location of defects.

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