Glycerol dehydrase is an enzyme that catalyzes dehydration of glycerol into β-propionaldehyde. It requires 5′-deoxyadenosylcobalamin, one of the forms of vitamin B12, as a coenzyme. The enzyme is inactivated in vitro by all forms of vitamin B12 stoichiometrically. The objective of this study was to determine vitamin B12 content by utilizing the inactivation of the enzyme by vitamin B12. After various examinations, an excellent standard curve was obtained up to 1 pmol vitamin B12 using 14 mU of the enzyme per tube. Glycerol dehydrase does not respond to vitamin B12 if it is bound to haptocorrin, a vitamin B12-binding protein. This necessitates a procedure for extraction of vitamin B12 from samples before assay. The enzyme was less inactivated by 5′-deoxyadenosylcobalamin than any other form of vitamin B12. However, this did not matter because all forms of vitamin B12 were converted into cyanocobalamin during the extraction procedure cited above, which was performed in a buffer containing potassium cyanide.