Predictors of Hemostatic Failure after Adrenaline Injection in Patients with Peptic Ulcers with Non-Bleeding Visible Vessel

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Non-bleeding visible vessel (NBVV) in patients with bleeding peptic ulcer is associated with a high risk of rebleeding. The aim of this study was to define factors associated with failure of endoscopic hemostasis and rebleeding in patients with NBVV.


Clinical and endoscopic parameters related to failure of endoscopic hemostasis with adrenaline in 191 bleeding peptic ulcer patients with NBVV were evaluated.


Endoscopic hemostasis was permanently successful in 154 patients (80.6%). Emergency surgical hemostasis for rebleeding was required in 37 patients (19.4%). Univariate analysis showed that therapeutic failure was significantly related to the presence of shock on admission (P = 0.003), posterior duodenal ulcers (P = 0.001), peptic ulcer history (P = 0.001), previous peptic ulcer bleeding (P = 0.002), or lack of history of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs consumption, when compared to use of such drugs (P = 0.04). Patients where therapy failed had lower hemoglobin levels at admission (7.8 ± 1.9 g/dL versus 10 ± 2.4 g/dL, P = 0.005). In a multivariate analysis low hemoglobin (P < 0.001) as well as history of previous peptic ulcer bleeding (P = 0.002) and posterior duodenal ulcers (P = 0.001) were negative predictors. Using the mean value of hemoglobin as the cut-off point, it is noteworthy that only 2 out of 81 patients (2.5%) who had none of these predictive factors required emergency surgical hemostasis, whereas 34 out of 110 patients (30.9%) with at least one predictive factor required emergency surgery.


It is possible, by employing specific characteristics, to define a subgroup of high-risk patients for rebleeding in patients with NBVV despite therapeutic endoscopy and thus candidates for a complementary endoscopic method of hemostasis or emergency surgical intervention.

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