Sleep is a restorative mechanism of the body to maintain optimal health. Its physiological role in relaxation, repair and maintenance of psychological balance is well known. Alternatively, sleep deprivation (SD) or sleep loss is kind of stress that is associated with a number of neurobehavioral, metabolic, hormonal, neuroendocrine and immune disorders of the body. SD or fragmentation is also involved in several neurological diseases such as anxiety, depression and cognitive impairments. In the present article, the authors highlight neurological problems associated with SD such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, pain, and Huntington's disease. They focus on various neurological disorders either induced or worsened by SD and sleep loss along with the proposed mechanisms involved. As one of the greatest present challenges for clinicians is the inadequate drug therapy for sleep disorders, it has become essential to identify individuals at risk because recognition and adequate treatment of their sleep problems may reduce the risk of certain neurological disorders.