Laparoscopic Ultrasonography and Operative Cholangiography Prevent Residual Common Bile Duct Stones in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

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We retrospectively evaluated the role of intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) combined with laparoscopic intraoperative ultrasonography (LIOU) for detection of common bile duct (CBD) stones in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We reviewed 184 patients with biliary stones. Preoperatively, all patients underwent ultrasonography (US); 183 of the patients were investigated by cholangiography (oral and intravenous cholangiography in 145 and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography in 44). LIOU was carried out in all patients and IOC was done in 183. LIOU visualized the bile duct in 94.6% of the patients and IOC was successful in 95.6%. CBD stones were detected in a total of 17 patients, 9 (52.9%) of whom were positive on preoperative investigations. The sensitivity for detecting CBD stones was 29.4% with US, 22.2% with oral and intravenous cholangiography, 50.0% with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography, 82.4% with LIOU, and 93.3% with IOC. The diameter of the stones visualized intraoperatively (4.4 ± 1.2 mm) was smaller than that of the stones detected preoperatively (6.9 ± 2.6 mm). The stones were removed during laparoscopy in 15 patients and after conversion to laparotomy in 2. None of the patients had residual CBD stones after follow-up for 6 to 50 months. Intraoperative examination using both LIOU and IOC was useful for prevention of residual CBD stones.

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