Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy for a Rare 14-cm Adrenal Schwannoma

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Laparoscopic surgery for adrenal tumors is the gold standard for benign tumors; however, its role for adrenal cancer, metastases, and large suspicious lesions remains controversial. This aspect becomes clinically more important as larger incidentaloma are being detected with increasing frequency. Here, we discuss a rare case of a giant 14-cm adrenal schwannoma, which presented as an incidentaloma and was excised laparoscopically. Epidemiology, histology, and surgical treatment options were reviewed. An abdominal computerized tomography scan of a 30-year-old female weighing 130 kg revealed a large left adrenal mass. Preoperative biochemical and endocrine workup confirmed that it was nonfunctioning. The patient had a laparoscopic adrenalectomy without complication. The nodular tumor measured 145×100×80 cm in size and weighed 312 g. Histopathology showed myxoid areas and spindle cells arranged in a palisading manner. Mitoses were not observed. Tumor cells were immunohistochemically strongly positive for S-100, but negative for CD117, desmin, and muscle-specific actin. There was no evidence of malignancy. The diagnosis was of a benign schwannoma. Adrenal schwannoma is an extremely rare entity and can grow considerably in size. So far, this is the largest adrenal schwannoma reported in literature. In agreement with a growing number of publications, laparoscopic adrenalectomy can also be used for potentially malignant tumors larger than 10 cm in diameter provided the tumor does not infiltrate into other organs, conversion to open surgery is carefully considered, and resection occurs within the anatomic planes, thus ensuring the intactness of the tumor capsule.

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