The Influence of 3D in Single-port Laparoscopy Surgery: An Experimental Study

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Abstract

The aim of this experimental study was to analyze the effect of 3-dimensional (3D) imaging in laparoendoscopic single-site surgery. End points were time, errors, and preference. Twenty-six participants were enrolled in the study, and these were divided into Beginners and Experts, in exercises either with a 2-dimensional or a 3D system. The 4 phantom exercises were chosen from the E-BLUS—European Training in Basic Laparoscopic Urological Skills from the American Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) system. A postexercise questionnaire was delivered. Statistical analyses using SPSS 22.0 for Windows yielded a 1-way analysis of variance. There was a significant positive impact of 3D imaging on experts’ performance: faster exercise completion with fewer errors. The majority reported improved performance with the 3D system (86%, Beginners; 100%, Experts). 3D systems for laparoscopy would likely increase experts’ performance for laparoendoscopic single-site surgery and improve comfort during difficult procedures.

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