This study aimed to examine associations between health status and care needs of nursing home residents and risk of death from suicide compared to other causes through a retrospective data linkage cohort study examining nursing home resident deaths in Australia between 2000 and 2013. Data linkage was performed between aged care assessment tools—Resident Classification System and Aged Care Funding Instrument—and the National Coronial Information System. A competing risks survival analysis was performed to determine the association between care assessment variables (activities of daily living (ADL), behavior, and complex health care) and the risk of death from suicide and any other cause. Of the 146 nursing home residents who died from suicide, 130 (89%) were matched to their assessment data, with comparable information available for 95 residents (65%). Residents who required high levels of care with ADL, physical health care, and cognitive and behavioral issues had a higher risk of dying from all other causes, yet lower risk of dying from suicide. The study findings demonstrate the feasibility and value of linking these two data sets; highlight a need for improved data collection processes; and support a person-centered care approach for prevention of suicide among nursing home residents.