Endoscopy of the tendons (tendoscopy) of the foot and ankle has become more frequently performed and reported. New, smaller endoscopic cameras and instruments have made tendoscopy more accessible and useful for sports medicine and related surgeries. The peroneal tendons are particularly accessible for tendoscopy owing to their subcutaneous position along the lateral ankle. Tendoscopy of the peroneal tendon sheaths can be used for diagnosis and minimally invasive treatment of certain disorders. In cases where open procedures are indicated, surgical exposure can be limited by tendoscopic identification of the exact location of the pathology, allowing repair through a limited or “mini” incision. This paper reviews the available literature and presents the authors technique for peroneal tendoscopy. Endoscopic photographs of normal anatomy and pathologic conditions are presented.