Organic, physiologic, and psychologic causes of dysmenorrhea are presented. Signs and symptoms include pelvic fullness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, urinary frequency, nervousness, and headaches. Primary dysmenorrhea has been treated with analgesics, diuretics, and antispasmodics. Androgen therapy was also found to be effective, but it cannot be used for women who have acne or hirsutism. Surgery is rarely indicated for primary dysmenorrhea.