Laparoscopy was done about three months after hysterosalpingography (HSG) in 121 patients complaining of infertility. Normal patency was found with both technics in 71 patients (58.6%). In 23 of the 97 patients with a normal HSG, however, peritubal or tubal disease was observed at the time of laparoscopy (false-negative results, 19%). Twenty-four tubal obstructions (19.8%) were detected by HSG (i6 distal and eight proximal) but five distal and four proximal obstructions were not confirmed by laparoscopy (false-positive results, 7.4%). In addition, laparoscopic evaluation demonstrated endometriosis in 31 cases, polycystic ovaries in six, and uterine fibroids in five.