Rat Bite Fever Misdiagnosed as Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

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A patient who had been exposed to ticks and who had also been bitten by a laboratory rat developed fever, headache, and a rash. He was treated with chloramphenicol for Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and recovered. Blood cultures, however, grew Streptobacillus moniliformis, a causative agent of rat bite fever. The case report illustrates the clinical similarities between rat bite fever and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

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