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The use of mastectomy has increased in patients who are high-risk genetic carriers who need or desire mastectomy for prophylactic reasons, as well as for patients who have breast cancer and need or desire mastectomy for treatment of their cancer. Retaining the nipple and skin with a nipple-sparing mastectomy results in improved patient satisfaction as compared with traditional mastectomy, without compromise of oncologic principles. This technique has been performed in patients with small, peripherally located tumors and nonptotic breasts; in recent years, however, consideration has been given to patients with more centrally located, larger tumors, and patients undergoing radiation or with ptotic breasts with the potential for poor cosmetic outcome. As the use of nipple-sparing mastectomy increases, it is important to continually assess the eligibility of patients for this technique.