Multidisciplinary Perioperative Management of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery

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Abstract

Objectives

To describe the effect of implementing a contemporary perioperative pulmonary hypertension (PH)–targeted protocol in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) undergoing noncardiac surgery (NCS).

Methods

The data of consecutive patients with PAH diagnosed by right heart catheterization who underwent NCS between January 1, 2006 and February 9, 2016 were reviewed. Patient demographics, etiology of PAH, clinical features, diagnostic data, utilization of PH-specific medications, and trend of perioperative complications rate were recorded during the study period.

Results

In the base cohort of 375 patients, 37 had NCS. The mean age at surgery was 62 years. Most patients were women (78%) classified in group 1 PAH. At the time of the surgery, 86% were New York Heart Association functional class III/IV and 97% had American Society of Anesthesiologists classifications 3 and 4. A larger proportion of patients displayed lower PAH risk scores between 2006 and 2011 (P = 0.045). Conversely, a higher percentage of patients exhibited moderately high to very high PAH risk scores between 2012 and 2016 (P = 0.003). Perioperative and anesthetic-related morbidity was 27%, and no difference was observed between either period (P = 0.944). Most of the complications (70%) were related to general anesthesia. Two deaths (5%) occurred in our study group, both during the 2006–2011 period.

Conclusions

The combination of a multidisciplinary perioperative approach, utilization of novel pulmonary vascular disease–targeted therapy, adequate perioperative optimization, and thoughtful selection of anesthetic technique seems to be a potential strategy to at least maintain similar perioperative outcomes among higher- and lower-risk patients with PAH undergoing NCS.

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