Uric Acid Control in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease in a Southeastern US Urban Cohort

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Abstract

Objectives

Uric acid (UA) control may be insufficient in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients in the current era. It is unclear, however, whether this is the result of environmental effects, patient anthropometrics or insufficient dosing of medical therapy (allopurinol).

Methods

We have collected data on multiple clinical and laboratory parameters of 114 CKD clinic patients attending the nephrology clinic of the University of Mississippi Medical Center with an estimated glomerular filtration rate <45 mL · min−1 · 1.73 m2. We assessed the correlates of UA levels and the allopurinol doses along with achieved serum UA and urine pH.

Results

The cohort consisted of middle-aged to elderly patients with a mean (± standard deviation) age of 62.1 (11.6) years; 45.6% were female, 68.4% were African American and 47.4% had a history of gout. The mean UA level was 7.7 (2.49) mg/dL (range 3.1–16), allopurinol dose was 192 (99) mg/day (range 50–450) and estimated glomerular filtration rate was 23.8 (11.3) mL · min−1 · 1.73 m2. While the overall serum bicarbonate level was 25 (3.2) mEq/L, urine pH was <6 in 60.5% of the cohort. Significant univariate correlates of the administered doses of allopurinol were weight (r 0.317, P = 0.001), body mass index (BMI; r 0.313, P = 0.001), and female sex (r −0.198; P = 0.035). Achieved UA levels correlated directly with BMI (r 0.201, r = 0.036) but inversely with the allopurinol dose (r −0.196; P = 0.036). During logistic regression analysis with stepwise selection, only weight (β 0.313, P = 0.001) and sex (β −0.190, P = 0.039) proved to be predictive of the allopurinol dose; as for the achieved UA level, only BMI (β 0.271, P = 0.006) and the allopurinol dose (β −0.258; P = 0.009) had a significant effect.

Conclusions

In patients with advanced CKD, conventional dosing recommendations for allopurinol are unlikely to suffice in reaching target serum UA goals. In our cohort, larger-than-usual allopurinol doses were well tolerated.

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