EVIDENCE FOR A 17-YEAR CYCLE IN THE IMF DIRECTIONS AT 1 AU, IN SOLAR CORONAL HOLE VARIATIONS, AND IN PLANETARY MAGNETOSPHERIC MODULATIONS

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Abstract

A dominant 16–17yr cycle was observed in the net exposure times of the Earth to Toward and Away field directions of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). A cycle of the same frequency and phase was observed in the polarity of the long-term hemispheric differences in coronal hole distributions. This was determined from north/south differences in average Fe XIV green line ‘quiet’ regions at high- and mid-latitudes. It is argued that the 17-yr cycle is a fundamental oscillation of coronal hole topology, which is transferred to Earth via variations in the neutral sheet. A comparison of the 17-yr cycle to the 22-yr Hale cycle indicated that they are not identical, but rather, can mix to form a 75-yr cycle plus a 9-yr cycle. Evidence for the 75-yr cycle existed in the Earth's net exposure times to fields from the solar North and South, and in the long-term imbalance of solar quiet regions between the northern and southern hemispheres. The 9-yr cycle was manifested in the mid- to low- latitude Fe XIV modulations and in solar wind velocity variations in the ecliptic. At Earth, evidence for a similar 17-yr cycle was observed in the horizontal magnetic field observations in a multitude of surface magnetic recording stations. In addition, the detection of a 17-yr cycle in the Huancayo neutron monitor cosmic ray series suggests that the effects of this cycle extend to the heliospheric boundaries. It is concluded that sufficient preliminary evidence exists to consider the hypothesis that the Sun contains a magnetic moment with an oscillatory cycle of 17years.

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