Heritage Identity and Maintenance Enhance Well-Being of Turkish-Bulgarian and Turkish-German Adolescents

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This study compares Turkish minority youth in Bulgaria and Germany by examining differences in ethnic identity (heritage and mainstream), acculturation (host culture adoption and heritage culture maintenance), and their influence on psychological and sociocultural outcomes. Participants were 178 Turkish-Bulgarian and 166 Turkish-German youth (mean age of 15.96 years). Youth in both cultural contexts regarded their Turkish identity and culture maintenance as more relevant than their mainstream identity and culture adoption. Turkish-Bulgarians also reported higher scores on host culture adoption than Turkish-Germans. A multigroup path model showed that Turkish identity and maintenance were positively related to well-being and adjustment to both cultures, whereas mainstream identity and adoption were positively associated with adjustment to the host culture only.

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