Masculine Identity, Ambivalent Sexism, and Attitudes Toward Gender Subtypes: Favoring Masculine Men and Feminine Women

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Abstract

We investigated how men’s masculine identification and ambivalent sexism relate to evaluations of male and female subtypes. Masculine identification correlated with positive attitudes toward male and female types that conform to traditional gender norms (i.e., masculine men, feminine women), but negative attitudes toward feminine men. However, masculine identification was not associated with negative evaluations toward other nontraditional male (stay-at-home fathers, feminist men) or with nontraditional female (masculine women, career women, and feminist women) subtypes. By contrast, hostile sexism consistently predicted negative evaluations of nontraditional female and male types, whereas benevolent sexism predicted positive evaluations of traditional female types. We suggest that masculine identification generally promotes favoritism toward traditional male and (like benevolent sexism) traditional female subtypes, rather than (as hostile sexism does) derogation toward nontraditional subtypes.

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