As a consequence of a pipeline break, approximately 1.9 million liters of kerosene inundated 1.5 hectares of a New Jersey wheat field. After emergency cleanup operations, the hydrocarbon content of the contaminated field was assessed by coring, extraction, and quantitative gas chromatography. A rehabiliation program, consisting of liming, fertilization, and frequent tilling, was initiated, and the decrease of hydrocarbon contaminants in the soil was monitored for a 2-year period. Seed germination and yield data showed that the field returned to a near-normal and productive state 1 year after the spill. The hydrocarbon content of the surface soil decreased to an insignificant level 2 years after the spill. The disappearance rate of the hydrocarbon contaminants showed a definite correlation with the monthly temperature averages. In addition to the rehabiltation program, the oil type and the nature of the contaminated soil both contributed to the relatively rapid recovery of this field.