THE DIFFUSION AND NONEQUILIBRIUM THERMODYNAMIC EQUATIONS OF WATER VAPOR IN SOILS UNDER TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS

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Abstract

Based on the observation that temperature is a function of distance, Fick's law of diffusion is extended as widely as possible to apply to the movement of water vapor in soils under temperature gradients. The general equations developed as a result are expressed using (1) water vapor pressure, (2) water vapor density, (3) the Clapeyron equation, and (4) the form of phenomenological equations in nonequilibrium thermodynamics. From comparisons with the equations derived in several previous reports, we conclude that the earlier results may be valid only under the condition that the total water potential is larger than −106 centimeters.

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