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To evaluate the need for dental treatment in chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) patients undergoing hemodialysis.Transversal study and case control.CRI patients were examined at the Pequeno Príncipe Hospital in Curitiba, Brazil. The control group was examined at Nossa Senhora da Conceição Health Clinic in Campo Magro, Brazil.Thirty-four CRI patients were undergoing hemodialysis. The control group consisted of 34 normoreactive individuals paired by gender and age.The clinical examination was performed under an artificial light, using an oral mirror, an exploratory probe, a periodontal probe, and a tongue depressor.This study adopted the methodology proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO).The CRI patient group needs periodontal and orthodontic treatment. The control group needs restorative treatments, prostheses, as well as surgical and endodontic treatment.The profile of dental treatment needs proved to be distinct among the studied groups.