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Extensive development of spinal instrumentation has occurred recently, benefitted by improved biomechanical knowledge. Reviewed here are various devices and the major biomechanical issues relevant to them. The devices are categorized by site of attachment. The major emphasis is on the most recently developed category: devices attached by transpedicular screws. Aspects of this last category reviewed here include screw design, screw placement, longitudinal linking devices (rods, plates), and transverse connectors (cross-linking). Emphasis is placed not only on current knowledge, but also on unresolved issues.