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This case report describes the unique occurrence of acquired intradural spinal arachnoid cyst after lumbar puncture, which was proven radiographically and surgically.To review and explore complications of lumbar puncture in the context of subsequent cyst development and to review the incidence, presentation, pathogenesis, and management of spinal intradural arachnoid cysts.The etiology of the spinal intradural arachnoid cyst remains obscure; some such cysts are ascribed anecdotally to previous trauma or arachnoiditis, whereas the majority are idiopathic and assumed by many authors to be congenital.A 20-year-old woman with back and leg pain underwent lumbar myelography that yielded normal results with no evidence of arachnoid cyst at that time. Within 5 months, clinical symptoms of cauda equina compression and an S1 radiculopathy developed. Subsequent myelography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lumbar spinal arachnoid cyst. There was no history of intervening trauma or arachnoiditis. The lumbar puncture was thought to be the cause of the arachnoid cyst.A laminectomy was performed with complete excision of the arachnoid cyst. The patient had an unremarkable postoperative course with excellent relief of her symptoms.This case provides supporting evidence for the traumatic etiology of spinal intradural arachnoid cyst. The development of an intradural spinal arachnoid cyst should be included as a possible complication of lumbar puncture.