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Relatively short-term treatment of paraparesis due to Paget's disease with subcutaneous salmon calcitonin alone produced dramatic relief of sensory loss, pain, and paraparesis. The successful outcomes in 2 patients, one with spinal cord and one with cauda equina compression, indicate a potential alternative to surgery in reversing mild-to-severe neural dysfunction in Paget's disease. The proposed mechanisms of action of calcitonin include reduction of a direct bony impingement on the neural tissue and/or a decrease of neural ischemia. It is suggested that even if paraparesis does not improve with calcitonin alone, the medication given preoperatively would probably serve a useful adjunctive role by decreasing intraoperative bone bleeding. However, those patients whose pagetic bone is already metabolically inactive would probably not benefit from calcitonin therapy.