Torso Muscle Moment Arms at Intervertebral Levels T10 Through L5 from CT Scans on Eleven Male and Eight Female Subjects

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Moment arms for eight pairs of torso muscles were estimated based on data obtained from 19 sets of computed tomography (CT) scans. Muscle centroid locations of the rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis, latissimus dorsi, psoas, quadratus lumborum, and the erector spinae mass were Identified and digitized relative to vertebral body centers, which were also determined from the scans of the eight females and eleven males. Muscle moment arms were then calculated as the distance between the muscle and vertebral body centroids. The centroids for each torso muscle were plotted at each intervertebral level from T10–11 to L4–L5. When these sections were ordered in a cephalocaudad manner, the centroid-line paths, essential to the determination of muscle force lines-of-action, could be traced. Finally, anthropometric variables such as height, weight, torso depth, breadth, and age were regressed against the moment arm group means to develop several prediction equations that would determine moment arm lengths based on these anthropometric variables.

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