Retrospective study with prospectively collected outcomes data.Objective.
Determine the significance of coronal balance on spinal deformity surgery outcomes.Summary of Background Data.
Sagittal balance has been confirmed as an important radiographic parameter correlating with adult deformity treatment outcomes. The significance of coronal balance on functional outcomes is less clear.Methods.
Eighty-five patients with more than 4 cm of coronal imbalance who underwent reconstructive spinal surgery were evaluated to determine the significance of coronal balance on functional outcomes as measured with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Scoliosis Research Society outcomes questionnaires. Sixty-two patients had combined coronal (>4 cm) and sagittal imbalance (>5 cm), while 23 patients had coronal imbalance alone.Results.
Postoperatively, 85% of patients demonstrated improved coronal balance. The mean improvement in the coronal C7 plumb line was 26 mm for a mean correction of 42%. The mean preoperative sagittal C7 plumb line in patients with combined coronal and sagittal imbalance was 118 mm (range, 50–310 mm) and improved to a mean 49 mm. The mean preoperative and postoperative ODI scores were 42 (range, 0–90) and 27 (range, 0–78), for a mean improvement of 15 (36%) (P = 0.00001; 95% CI, 12–20). The mean Scoliosis Research Society scores improved by 17 points (29%) (P = 0.00). Younger age (P = 0.008) and improvement in sagittal balance (P = 0.014) were positive predictors for improved ODI scores. Improvement in sagittal balance (P = 0.010) was a positive predictor for improved Scoliosis Research Society scores. In patients with combined coronal and sagittal imbalance, improvement in sagittal balance was the most significant predictor for improved ODI scores (P = 0.009). In patients with preoperative coronal imbalance alone, improvement in coronal balance trended toward, but was not a significant predictor for improved ODI (P = 0.092).Conclusion.
Sagittal balance improvement is the strongest predictor of improved outcomes in patients with combined coronal and sagittal imbalance. In patients with coronal imbalance alone, improvement in coronal balance was not a factor for predicting improved functional outcomes.