Reliability and Validity of Simplified Chinese Version of Swiss Spinal Stenosis Questionnaire for Patients With Degenerative Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

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Study Design.

This was a prospective clinical validation study.


To evaluate the reliability and validity of the adapted simplified Chinese version of Swiss Spinal Stenosis (SC-SSS) Questionnaire.

Summary of Background Data.

The SSS Questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument to assess the perception of function and pain for patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. However, there is no culturally adapted SSS Questionnaire for use in mainland China.


This was a prospective clinical validation study. The adaption was conducted according to International Quality of Life Assessment Project guidelines. To examine the psychometric properties of the adapted SC-SSS Questionnaire, a sample of 105 patients with lumbar spinal stenosis were included. Thirty-two patients were randomly selected to evaluate the test-retest reliability. Reliability assessment of the SC-SSS Questionnaire was determined by calculating Cronbach α and intraclass coefficient values. Concurrent validity was assessed by correlating SC-SSS Questionnaire scores with relevant domains of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey.


Cronbach α of the symptom severity scale, physical function scale, patients, and satisfaction scale of SC-SSS Questionnaire are 0.89, 0.86, 0.91, respectively, which revealed very good internal consistency. The test–retest reproducibility was found to be excellent with the intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.93, 0.91, and 0.95. In terms of concurrent validity, SC-SSS Questionnaire had good correlation with physical functioning and bodily pain of 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (r = 0.663, 0.653) and low correlation with mental health (r = 0.289). The physical function scale had good correlation with physical functioning of 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (r = 0.637), whereas the rest had moderate correlation. The satisfaction scale score was highly correlated with the change in the symptom severity (r = 0.71) and physical function (r = 0.68) scale score.


The SC-SSS Questionnaire showed satisfactory reliability and validity in the evaluation of functionality in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis who are experiencing neurogenic claudication. It is simple and easy to use and can be recommended in clinical and research practice in mainland China.


Level of Evidence: 3

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