Posterior Correction and Fusion Surgery Using Pedicle-Screw Constructs for Lenke Type 5C Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Preliminary Report

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Abstract

Study Design.

A retrospective case series.

Objective.

To assess whether a short fusion strategy is applicable when treating adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with Lenke type 5C curve by posterior correction and fusion surgery using pedicle-screw constructs.

Summary of Background Data.

Previous studies have discussed the selection of the lower instrumented vertebra to best preserve motion segments and obtain coronal balance. However, reports evaluating the selection of the upper instrumented vertebra when treating Lenke type 5C curves are not available.

Methods.

We evaluated 29 patients who were treated surgically for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with Lenke type 5C curve (mean age, 16.8 ± 4.7 yr; range, 10–29 yr). The mean follow-up period was 28.0 ± 6.3 months (range, 24–48 mo). We compared radiographical parameters and clinical outcomes between patients with an upper instrumented vertebra at the end vertebra (EV) (n = 10) and those treated by short fusion (S group), with a upper instrumented vertebra 1-level caudal to the EV (n = 19 patients).

Results.

In the EV group, a preoperative mean Cobb angle of 50°± 15° was corrected to 8°± 7°, which was maintained at the final follow-up (7°± 1°). In the S group, a mean preoperative Cobb angle of 47°± 4° was corrected to 8°± 5°, but this increased significantly to 12°± 7° at final follow-up (P = 0.033). The mean correction rate at final follow-up was significantly lower in the S group (72%) than in the EV group (86%) (P = 0.027). Coronal and sagittal balance, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, L4 tilt, and clinical outcomes evaluated by Scoliosis Research Society patient questionnaire-22 were equivalent between the 2 groups.

Conclusion.

Scoliosis Research Society patient questionnaire-22 scores and radiographical parameters other than the correction rate were equivalent between the 2 groups. A short fusion strategy, in which the upper instrumented vertebra is 1-level caudal to the upper EV, is applicable to posterior correction and fusion surgery with pedicle-screw constructs for Lenke type 5C curves.

Conclusion.

Level of Evidence: 4

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