Predictors of Persistent Axial Neck Pain After Cervical Laminoplasty

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Study Design.Retrospective analysis of prospective data.Objective.The aim of this study was to reveal baseline predictors of persistent postlaminoplasty neck pain.Summary of Background Data.Axial neck pain is one of the most common complications after cervical laminoplasty; however, baseline predictors of persistent postlaminoplasty neck pain are unclear.Methods.We analyzed data from 156 patients who completed a 2-year follow-up after double-door laminoplasty for degenerative cervical myelopathy. Patients rated the average intensity of axial neck pain in the last month using an 11-point numerical rating scale preoperatively and at the 2-year follow-up. The dependent variable was the presence of moderate-to-severe neck pain (numerical rating scale ≥4) at the 2-year follow-up. The independent variables included patient characteristics, baseline radiological parameters, surgical variables, baseline axial neck pain intensity, and baseline functions, which were measured by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score and the Short Form-36 survey (SF-36). Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of moderate-to-severe neck pain after laminoplasty.Results.At the 2-year follow-up, 51 patients (32%) had moderate-to-severe neck pain, and 106 patients (68%) had no or mild pain. Univariate analysis revealed that the ratio of cervical anterolisthesis, ratio of current smoking, baseline neck pain intensity, and baseline SF-36 Mental Component Summary differed significantly between the groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that independent predictors of moderate-to-severe neck pain at the 2-year follow-up include the presence of anterolisthesis, current smoking, moderate-to-severe baseline neck pain, and lower SF-36 Mental Component Summary. The presence of anterolisthesis and moderate-to-severe baseline neck pain were also associated with significantly poorer physical function after surgery.Conclusion.The presence of anterolisthesis was associated not only with the highest odds ratio of persistent neck pain but also with significantly poorer functional outcomes. Indications for cervical laminoplasty should be carefully determined in patients with cervical anterolisthesis.Level of Evidence: 4

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