Minimally Invasive Surgery for Neuromuscular Scoliosis: Results and Complications in a Series of One Hundred Patients

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Study Design.A retrospective review.Objective.To report the results of an alternative technique using a minimally invasive fusionless surgery. The originality is based on the progressive correction of the deformities with proximal and distal fixation and on the reliability of the pelvic fixation using iliosacral screws on osteoporotic bones.Summary of Background Data.Spinal deformities are common in neuromuscular diseases. Conventional treatment involves bracing, followed by spinal instrumented fusion. Growing rod techniques are increasingly advocated but have a high rate of complications.Methods.The technique relies on a bilateral double rod sliding construct anchored proximally by four hooks claws and distally to the pelvis by iliosacral screws through a minimally invasive approach. Hundred patients with neuromuscular scoliosis underwent the same fusionless surgery extended from T1 to the pelvis. The average age at initial surgery was 11 + 6 years. Diagnoses included cerebral palsy (61), spinal muscular atrophy (22), muscular dystrophy (10), and other neurological etiologies (7). Cobb angle and pelvic obliquity were measured before and after initial surgery, and at final follow-up. Complications were reviewed.Results.At latest follow-up 3 + 9 years (range 2 yr–6 + 3 yr), the mean Cobb angle improved from 89° to 35° which corresponds to 61% correction. Mean pelvic obliquity improved from 29° to 5°, which corresponds to 83% correction. Mean T1-S1 length increased from 30.02 to 37.28 cm. Mean preoperative hyper kyphosis was reduced from 68.44° to 33.29°. Complications occurred in 26 patients including mechanical complications (12) and wound infections (16). No arthrodesis was required at last follow-up.Conclusion.This original fusionless technique is safe and effective, preserving spinal and thoracic growth. It provides a significant correction of spinal deformities and pelvic obliquity with a reduced complications rate. The strength and stability of this modular construct over time allow the avoidance of final arthrodesis.Level of Evidence: 4

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