Quantitative Characteristics of Consecutive Lengthening Episodes in Early Onset Scoliosis (EOS) Patients with Dual Growth Rods

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Abstract

Study Design.

A prospective single-center study

Objective.

To record the characteristic forces and lengths observed during distraction episodes in early onset scoliosis (EOS), and analyze their interdependencies on the key variability among the patients.

Summary of Background Data.

The goal of the growing-rod technique is to achieve deformity correction alongside maintaining growth of the spine. The deformity correction is achieved during the initial surgery but follow up distraction episodes are necessary to maintain the growth. The key variables, under the control of a surgeon, that affect the growth are the applied distraction forces and the distraction lengths. Since the advent of dual growth rod technique, there has been many studies exploring the relationship between these and the actual growth. However, there is sparse evidence on the actual magnitude of distraction forces, and none on its association with patient's parameters such as gender, age and deformity.

Methods.

In a consecutive series of 47 patients implanted with dual growth rods, the distraction forces (in N) and the lengths (in mm) achieved during each distraction episode and compared against the episode specific demographics. The values obtained from each side, i.e. concave and convex sides, were averaged to calculate the mean. Statistical analysis was performed using t-distribution because for each normalized time points (distraction episode).

Results.

In cumulative, the distraction force increased by an amount of 268%, with 120% increase in the early stages (distractions episodes 1–6) and 68% increase in the later stages (distractions episodes 6–11). Whereas, the cumulative decrease in the length over 11 distractions episodes was 47%, with 34% and 20% in the early and later stages respectively. The study doesn’t identify any significant trend with respect to gender, age and deformity.

Conclusion.

The distraction force and the length increased and decreased respectively with every consecutive distraction episode, with no correlation to gender, age, extent of deformity or the extent of correction.

Conclusion.

Level of Evidence: 5

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