The Risk Factors of Low Back Pain in Female High-School Students

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Study Design.

A prospective cross-sectional study


To evaluate the prevalence and associated factors with low back pain (LBP) in female adolescents of high school age.

Summary of Background Data.

The prevalence of LBP in Tehran is high, and the majority of previous studies on LBP in adolescent and its risk factors have been performed in the developed countries. Therefore, identification of risk factors and planning appropriate protocols for prevention of LBP in adolescents may substantially decrease the prevalence of LBP and its burden developing countries in future.


In a prospective cross-sectional study, demographic characteristics, including age, body mass index (BMI), weight and mode of using backpack, family history of LBP in first degree relatives, and passive smoking status of the participants along with a history of LBP were recorded. Joint hypermobility was assessed using Beighton scale. Also, anthropometric measurements, spinal flexion and hip joint range of motion were measured for each participant.


In total, 372 students participated in the study. The mean (SD) age of the participants was 15.8 (0.9) years. The lifetime, more than 3 months, and last month history of LBP was 46.2%, 11.6%, and 31.2%. Positive history of LBP in the first degree relatives was significantly associated with LBP in the participants (p < 0.01). The prevalence of passive smoking was significantly higher in the participants with last month history of LBP (p = 0.03). The prevalence of joint hypermobility was 15.9% and was significantly higher in those with the lifetime and last month history of LBP (p < 0.01).


LBP is a common complaint among adolescent and high school girl students. The results of this study identified the prevalence and associated factors with LBP in high school students and will help develop strategies for prevention and treatment of LBP in the adolescent population.


Level of Evidence: 3

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