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The arthroscope has significantly changed the way disorders of the shoulder have been approached, primarily because arthroscopy has facilitated and improved the ability to diagnose, understand, and treat pathologic conditions of the shoulder. This is especially true with regard to disorders of the rotator cuff. In this review, use of the arthroscope as a diagnostic tool for evaluating disorders of the rotator cuff is discussed. In addition, the arthroscopic treatment of pathologic conditions of the rotator cuff including the impingement syndrome, rotator cuff tears, calcific tendonitis, and biceps pathology is presented.