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Full thickness defects or injuries of the articular cartilage are often associated with disabling pain and impaired daily activities. These injuries may progress to secondary osteoarthrosis. It is important to treat these patients and try to accomplish regeneration of articular cartilage, especially in younger patients. Cells in the cambium layer of the periosteum are pluripotent and can differentiate into hyaline (or hyaline-like) cartilage. Autologous periosteum transplants, and autologous chon-drocytes—periosteum, have been used in the treatment of full thickness cartilage defects in the knee joint. The results vary. Postoperatively, the type of rehabilitation may be of great importance, e.g. continuous passive motion (CPM) in the immediate postoperative period.