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Complex biologic molecular and cellular processes underlie the structure and function of vertebrate musculoskeletal systems. Improvements in the management of sports or similar orthopedic injuries are possible utilizing biologic interventional methods, including the use of tissues, cells, bioactive molecular agents, and bioabsorbable materials. The various biologic intervention methods can have a beneficial effect on structural, neuromuscular, and physiologic characteristics of damaged musculoskeletal systems. Care must be taken to ensure that any bioactive therapeutic method does not lead to potentially dangerous results, such as harmful neoplasms. Methods designed to work symbiotically with the patient's own unique evolutionarily honed biologic characteristics are likely to result in the ultimate goal of full restoration of musculoskeletal function.