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Owing to anatomy and biomechanical demands, shoulder injuries are a common occurrence in throwing and overhead striking athletes. The purpose of this review is to examine the relative frequency and nature of shoulder injuries in this population. We found that shoulder injuries occurred in athletes of all levels, from Little League to professional, although the frequency of these injuries increased with age and the concurrent elevation of competition. The evaluation of this epidemiologic information should allow the clinician to better understand, prevent, and treat injuries to the shoulder joint of susceptible athletes.