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Biodegradable implants are established in the field of operative sports medicine. So-called composite implants are increasingly used. The idea to improve biocompatibility and osteoconductivity of biodegradable polymers by modifying them with a ceramic component, has led to the development of these composite implants. Today, an increasing variety of composite implants are available. They have substantially different material characteristics, which depend on matrix polymer choice and the additional ceramic. The material characteristics influence the mechanical properties, in vivo degradation, the osseous replacement and the host-tissue response. It is important to understand their biologic base for a better knowledge of the advantages and risks associated with using composite implants in the field of operative sports medicine. The purpose of this review is to focus on current developments in biodegradable composite implants and their biologic base.