Bone Grafting in Arthroscopy and Sports Medicine

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Bone graft substitutes include autografts, allografts, xenografts, and synthetics. Although autograft is still the gold standard, limited supply and donor morbidity must be considered. Allograft can vary in its bone-inductive qualities and may be processed into various shapes and constructs. Although allografts provide an osteoconductive matrix with some osteoinductivity, only limited anatomic constructs can be provided. Xenografts are abundant in supply, yet their shape and construct dimensions are restricted and xenograft properties are less than ideal due to the processing required to render the material nonimmunogenic. To achieve optimal bone graft properties, researchers are developing new materials with the goal of designing synthetics as close to autograft as possible. The advantages and disadvantages of all of these bone graft materials will be reviewed with emphasis on their relevance and applicability for sports medicine procedures.

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