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The ability to biologically manipulate musculoskeletal healing and augment bone and soft tissue repair and regeneration holds great promise. Advances in the basic science study and clinical application of bioactive proteins and growth factors continues to evolve. Improvement in the surgical resurfacing of articular cartilage defects and tendon and ligament repair through the addition of bioactive polypeptides is currently underway. The purpose of this article is to review the present array of biologically active materials that may be clinically applicable in sports medicine and arthroscopy. Mechanisms for biologic augmentation of tissue repair and regeneration will be discussed. Current limitations and future considerations will be reviewed particularly as they relate to practical clinical approaches.